The latter would be the United States with an African partner first, and negotiations are expected to begin next week. Trump`s representatives have long argued that the agreement could serve as a «model free trade treaty» for agreements with other African countries, allowing this process to be followed closely in the future. Indeed, in the months leading up to Donald Trump`s election victory in 2016 and the early years of his administration, the U.S. prime minister repeatedly threatened to withdraw from NAFTA if he failed to reach a more «fair» deal for American workers. This would be part of a broader effort to negotiate or renegotiate trade agreements with any country that has not provided the United States with «free, fair and reciprocal» conditions, fuelling tensions with many trading partners, including Canada and Mexico. The USMCA will lead a multi-trillion dollar market and is expected to face severe strain in all three countries, particularly in a U.S. election year. The new agreement, known in Canada as CUSMA and T-MEC in Mexico, has been under discussion since the idea was first publicized years ago, both for substantive and political reasons. On April 3, 2020, Canada informed the United States and Mexico that it had completed its national process of ratifying the agreement.
 Another study by Mary E. Burfisher, Frederic Lambert and Troy D. Matheson of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) found a negligible impact on GDP (0.02% for Canada, -0.01% for Mexico and 0.00% for the United States). They also note that «significant provisions of the USMCA would lead to a reduction in economic integration in North America, which would reduce trade between the three North American partners by more than $4 billion (0.4 percent), while members would benefit from a combined welfare benefit of $538 million (p. 23). On December 9, 2019, Fox News reported that negotiators from the three countries reached an agreement on implementation, paving the way for a final agreement within 24 hours and ratification by all three parties before the end of the year. Mexico has agreed to impose a minimum wage of $16 per hour for Mexican auto workers by a «neutral» third party. Mexico, which imports all of its aluminum, also objected to the provisions relating to the U.S. steel and aluminum content of automotive components.
 Many economists argue that the current level of TAA funding is largely insufficient to meet the increase in trade-related job losses. «There are pockets that have felt a lot of pain,» Hanson says. «The existence of these pockets underscores our political failure to help regions and individuals adapt to the effects of globalization.» The agreed text of the agreement was signed by the heads of state and government of the three countries on November 30, 2018, as an incidental event at the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina.  The English, Spanish and French versions will also be binding and the agreement will take effect after ratification by the three states through the adoption of enabling laws.  In addition, there is the provision that the agreement itself must be reviewed every six years by the three nations, with a 16-year forfeiture clause.