Despite many disagreements, Allied leaders managed to reach some agreements in Potsdam. Negotiators thus confirmed the status of Germany demilitarized and disarmed among the four zones of the Allied occupation. According to the protocol of the conference, there should be «complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany»; all aspects of German industry that could be used for military purposes should be removed; all German military and paramilitary forces should be eliminated; and the manufacture of all military equipment in Germany was prohibited. In addition, German society should be redeveloped by the repeal of all discriminatory laws of the Nazi era and by the arrest and trial of Germans considered «war criminals» on the democratic model. The German education and judicial system should be purged of all authoritarian influence and democratic political parties would be encouraged to participate in the management of Germany at the local and national levels. However, the re-establishment of a German national government was postponed indefinitely and the Allied Control Commission (composed of four occupying powers, the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union) would rule the country during the interregnum. The main objective of the Potsdam conference was to put an end to the post-war period and to put into practice all that had been agreed in Yalta. While the Yalta meeting was rather friendly, the Potsdam conference was marked by differences of opinion that were the result of some important changes since the Yalta conference. In Potsdam, little has been agreed. The three leaders of the time had many disagreements: Russian-Japanese relations were frozen in due course by their territorial dispute over the Kuril Islands. In dissociating the conflict, scientists studied the history of Russian-Japanese relations, the annexation of the islands by the USSR in 1945 and the role of the United States as a former war ally of the USSR and Japan`s post-war partner.
The United Kingdom, which played a key role in the importance of economic policy in 1945, was neglected in these studies. This article analyses the evolution of the British position on the Soviet-Japanese territorial dispute from 1945 until the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries in 1956. The article shows the clear discrepancy in this position with that of the United States, based on a disagreement over the interpretation of the 1945 Yalta Agreement. In addition, the article highlights the manipulation of territorial conflict by the United States in order to promote its own political and security objectives and the British response to these manoeuvres. The Potsdam Conference is perhaps best known for President Truman`s meeting with Stalin on July 24, 1945, during which the President announced to the Soviet leader that the United States had successfully detonated the first atomic bomb on July 16, 1945. Historians have often interpreted Truman`s somewhat firm attitude during negotiations with the United States.